A role ID is a unique identification number that all roles in Discord are automatically given. They're used in things like bots, and by developers.
Firstly, you must make sure that you can mention the role you wish to retrieve the role ID of. You can do this by going into your server settings, and toggling the "Allow anyone to @mention this role" option on. As shown in this image:
After making sure that anyone can mention the role, send the message: \@RoleName, replacing "RoleName" with the name of the role you wish to find the role ID for. If your role is called "AwesomeRole", you would type \@AwesomeRole. Here's an image of what the result of sending that message should be:
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